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“Exploration Team” by Murray Leinster (Astounding March 1956) as a Hugo novelette winner?

Back in November 2021, I made a Facebook post that started “I’ve been happily re-reading “The Hugo Winners”, 1964, Isaac Asimov editor.” What follows is that post, reformatted to something that makes more sense than a FB post and edited lightly for both content and format. A friend suggested that I had things to say that would be more productive to appear in a blog; after consideration, I agreed. Buckaroo Banzai said, “No matter where you go, there you are”, and I concur.

I know I’ve read “Exploration Team” before, but had completely forgotten that it won the 1956 Hugo Award for novelette (7,500 to 17,500 words). It’s a fun story about an Earthman and a team of Earth animals exploring an alien world, and it had a fun Astounding cover when it first appeared.

I like this story, but I do find it one of the more unlikely Hugo winners (close to to 1955 Hugo novel winner, “They’d Rather Be Right” by Mark Clifton and Frank Riley, which I still consider to be the most unworthy winner of all time, IMHO). In short, it was a “WTF” moment.

Luckily, Olav Rokne found a progress report for the 1956 Worldcon (see, which included the list of the nominees selected by a nomination committee (you could write in also), so we know the novelette nominees. They were:

  • “Exploration Team”, by Murray Leinster, Astounding March 1956;
  • “A Gun for Dinosaur”, by L. Sprague de Camp, Galaxy March 1956;
  • “Brightside Crossing”, by Alan Nourse, Galaxy Jan 1956;
  • “Home There’s No Returning”, by Henry Kuttner and C.L. Moore, in their “No Boundaries” collection, December 1955;
  • “Legwork”, by Eric Frank Russell, Astounding April 1956;
  • “The Assistant Self”, by F.L. Wallace, Fantastic Universe, March 1956;
  • “The End of Summer”, by Algis Budrys, Astounding November 1954; and
  • “Who?”, by Theodore Sturgeon, Galaxy March 1955.

The progress report stated that the eligibility period was June 1955 to June 1956. This made sense, as the Con was at the end of August 1956. It does jump out that the nomination committee clearly violated their own eligibility period by including “”The End of Summer” and “Who?”, both published well before June 1955.

I’d have to re-read the rest of them, but I do think that “A Gun for Dinosaur” and “The End of Summer” were both worthy nominees.

I sat down and looked at novelettes that should have been nominated, IMHO. I eliminated “The Darsteller” by Walter M. Miller, Jr., as it was the 1955 Hugo winner. I eliminated:

  • “A Work of Art” by James Blish, July 1956 SF Stories;
  • “The Skills of Xanadu” by Theodore Sturgeon , July 1956 Galaxy; and
  • “Time in Advance” by William Tenn, Aug 1956 Galaxy.

These are all potentially worthy of nomination, but they were published after the progress report was issued.

For worthy novelettes from 1954 to June 1956, I see these stories:

  • “The Man Who Came Early”, by Poul Anderson, on two Recommended Reading Lists (Classics & SFADB), June 1956 F&SF;
  • “The Dead Past”, by Isaac Asimov (1 List, SFADB), April 1956 Astounding;
  • “Stranger Station”, Damon Knight (1 List, SFADB), 1956 F&SF;
  • “A Canticle for Leibowitz”, Walter M. Miller, Jr, (2 Lists, Locus & SFADB), April 1955 F&SF;
  • “The Tunnel Under the World”, Frederik Pohl, (2 Lists, Classics and SFADB), January 1955 Galaxy;
  • “Grandpa”, by James H. Schmitz (1 List, SFADB), Feb 1955 Astounding;
  • “Fondly Fahrenheit”, Alfred Bester, ( 4 Lists, Classics, Locus, SFADB, SciFi), Aug 1954 F&SF;
  • “The Cold Equations”, Tom Godwin (4 Lists, Classics, Locus, SFADB, SciFi), Aug 1954 Astounding;
  • “Rat Race”, Frank Herbert, July 1955 Astounding;
  • “Let Me Live in a House”, Chad Oliver, Mar 1954 Universe SF; and
  • “The Music Master of Babylon”, Edgar Pangborn, Nov 1954 Galaxy.

There are no records that I found for the 1955 Hugo nominees, just the winners. We can be generous and suppose that the 1956 nominating committee knew what stories had been nominated for the 1955 Hugo vote, and eliminated them. Perhaps that took some of these off the table.

Regardless, I found quite a few great stories that could have been nominated, and I still find the Hugo novelette win of “Exploration Team” hard to believe.

However, we do have to remember that the Hugo Awards are for the sweet spot of things (books, stories, movies, TV shows, etc., depending upon the rules and categories in place that year) that voters know of and like. It is a popularity contest among the voters. The 1956 World Science Fiction Convention (NyCon II) was held in New York City, with about 850 attendees. I don’t know for sure, but I assume that the voters were a subset of those 850 attendees. No more than 425 votes would have been enough to win; perhaps a lot less, depending upon how many voted.

Murray Leinster was a popular figure, a fairly long time pro SF writer. “Exploration Team” appeared in Astounding; although it was no longer the unchallenged, most important SF magazine in 1955-56, it was still a big deal with a lot of subscriptions, so it was read. He was known for writing “First Contact”, Astounding May 1945, which was an important story then and now. He wrote “First Contact” before the Hugo Awards started, and perhaps voters felt he deserved an award.

Jo Walton wrote “An Informal History of the Hugos: A Personal Look Back at the Hugo Awards, 1953-2000”, 2018 Tor, a book I just loved for her enthusiasm, articulate writing and factual/historical basis to the extent possible. I checked her updated post on the 1956 Hugo outcomes, which I assume appeared in her book . She notes that “Exploration Team” would not have been her first choice. http://An Informal History of the Hugos: A Personal Look Back at the Hugo Awards, 1953-2000

I still find this a rather incomprehensible outcome, but that is life and Hugo voting for you.

3 responses to ““Exploration Team” by Murray Leinster (Astounding March 1956) as a Hugo novelette winner?”

  1. So impressed by your encyclopedic knowledge of this genre. I learned a lot about Hugo voting, what I am enjoying most about these posts is the opportunity for a better understanding of just how deep your sci-fi/fantasy passion runs, while learning more about the genre myself. Kind of like knowing that SF professor. I assume you have shared this with your SF FB group? I am wondering what kind of feedback they have given you if you did.

    Can you clarify for me if SF is Science Fiction or Science Fiction Fantasy? I want to get the terminology right. Oops just as I posted this I see you have tags at the top, so my question has already been answered.

    That being said, here is a potential idea for another post. You might consider writing a short post explaining some of the SF and Fantasy terms that you will use a lot in your writing, for the uninitiated, or even a glossary of sorts of the acronyms and other SF terminology that someone like me might not necessarily know. As an engineer, you know that every specialized subject has it’s own ‘shorthand’ and it would be a helpful reference. You could have some fun with it, if you wanted to poke a little fun at yourself. I know you have a wry sense of humor. Such a post could be pinned to the top, or added to a sidebar for easy reference. One of the cool things about using WP is you have so much flexibility for adding these kinds of thing. Nice to have a few ideas for expanding your site.

    What excites me most about you starting this blog is seeing a friend creating their own opportunities to share their passions, being able to follow you from the beginning and seeing your growth and progression as a writer. Cool stuff. And, a huge advantage to the blog format, in my opinion, is it isn’t subject to the criticism that “this is not the appropriate place for such things.” Though I always marvel at those who try to police what we share on our own social media pages, but that is a different discussion.

    Glad you are here and good job. I will try to give more constructive writing feedback in the future. Keep on blogging my friend.


  2. Thanks for the insightful comments. Hoo boy, terminology is interesting, useful, problematic and inconsistent, and of course used differently by different people, even those with huge experience and knowledge of these fields. In my personal universe, I tend to use “SF” as an abbreviation for “Science Fiction”. “There is also “fantasy” and even “horror” (which can overlap with each other and with SF), and probably innumerable other slicing and dicing and definitional spaces for those who choose to. Another term I really like to use that is broader and more inclusive is “speculative fiction” for SF, fantasy, horror and whatnot.

    I’m sure the SF Encyclopedia ( has very well thought out definitions of these terms. I may not agree with them, but they are a great resource. I have not yet bothered to loop them up. There are probably many, many other definitions of these terms, but that is a start on how I tend to look at things.

    I take your point, which is that it can be useful to define terms, especially if the audience is broad and perhaps just dipping a toe in the speculative fiction waters.


  3. […] at “A Deep Look By Dave Hook”, often about short SFF. One of those posts was “‘Exploration Team’ by Murray Leinster (Astounding March 1956) as a Hugo novelette winner…” No doubt, I was one of those people who looked at that Hugo Award winner and said, […]


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